What is a protocol?"A well-known set of rules and standards used to communicate between machines."  The internet must follow a protocol so that all machines using it can effectively communicate. What is an Internet Protocol (IP) address?An IP address is a number unique to each device on a network. It works a lot like a mailing address, where a device finds another address and also sends its return address so the two devices can communicate. How is it organized hierarchically?The first numbers identify the country and regional network of the device, then the subnetworks, then the address of the specific device. How many bits are in an IPv4 address?32 How many IPv4 addresses does that mean there are?  2^32 What is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4.  IPv6 has 128 bits, IPv4 has 32 bits. Why do we need IPv6?IPv4 does not have enough possible addresses for all the devices in the world, so we have to add more bits. What is an IP packet?An IP packet is a small package containing informa…

Perfection is Normal

In the world of computers, which is rapidly encompassing the entire world, perfection is becoming the new norm. People expect that when they send a message, it will be delivered exactly as intended. When they send a photo, the photo received will be identical to the one sent.

Human error is expected. A typo in an essay is normal. A wrong turn is normal. But even these human errors are being corrected by computers. Autocorrect counters human error in messages and a GPS flawlessly directs a driver to an intended destination. As the trend toward increased computer usage continues, so too will the trend toward perfection, and it will become normal.

As a student, the perfection of computers allows a highly efficient and reliable transfer of data between teachers and students. Teachers can print out documents for students to read, knowing that all students are receiving the same information. Students can submit assignments without ever seeing the teacher. I'm currently in a VHS class, a…

Quiz 1 Questions

The main circuit board in a computer. This question almost got me because I don't know the difference between a CPU and a motherboard. 
When the number of bits is not large enough to hold the number - what happens? I genuinely just didn't know that answer to this so I guessed wrong. I now know the higher order bits will be lost, so only the ending digits will be counted.
What is missing from this code? I got this right, but at first I thought the "+ x" was changing the value of x. I knew that it wasn't changing the value of x because it was in the println statement and not it's own statement.
What will print in this code? I got this wrong because I added 15 to 16 for when i=3, not realizing that the code will not run when i=3. The answer should be 16 (1+5+10).
Which of the following only requires a single bit of storage to represent the data? I answered this correctly, but I can see how it would be confusing. The temperature and a grade on a math test could b…

Breakthrough Technologies

Before reading this article, I had heard about AI, because everyone is talking about AI, and I'd heard about genetic predicting in AP Bio.

To be perfectly honest, I don't like the basis for most of these ideas, for various reasons, except for 3D metal printing, materials' quantum leap, and perfect online privacy.

The genetic fortune telling and artificial embryo ideas are likely barred by massive ethical issues, and for good reason. Looking at extremes, genetic fortune telling could eventually tell you your entire predicted medical history, which would take away from the spontaneity of life. Artificial embryos are essentially clones, which take away from the variety of life.

The Sensing City is a massive undertaking that has failed numerous times, wasting immense levels of resources that could be used elsewhere, and I struggle to see tangible benefits behind a "smart city" that don't increase human consumption.

Artificial intelligence is an intimidating conce…

The Internet is for Everyone

"Challenge 4: Internet is for everyone - but it won't be until in every home, in every business, in every school, in every library, in every hospital in every town and in every country on the Globe, the Internet can be accessed without limitation, at any time and in every language."

Although the above challenge may be inclusive and idealist, the internet does not need to exist everywhere. There are those who purposely avoid the internet, such as Amish and old people. The internet is a very useful tool for education and communication at all levels, but to aspire for every household to have it is inconsiderate toward those who do not wish for the internet. I agree that access to the internet is important, so public buildings should certainly give public access, but I don't believe the challenge should include private homes.

"Challenge 2: Internet is for everyone - but it won't be if Governments restrict access to it, so we must dedicate ourselves to keeping th…

Marconi Feedback

I really enjoyed the coding and decoding activity with the enigma simulators. I didn't realize the enigma machines changed their settings with each letter pressed, and changed differently depending on which letter was pressed. It was interesting that if one letter was wrong in the coding, then the decoding would all be off from that letter on. Ed Giorgio was very interesting in his presentation, although I definitely lost him at points when he got too far into technicalities. I liked starting out with the introductory videos just to put everything into context before seeing the rest of the museum, and I liked exploring the phones and shark tags and the rest of that exhibit last. I think, considering my perceived interest level in and general knowledge of the topics covered, they did a good job keeping me interested. I am very grateful to them for taking the time to show us all of the history and technology within the museum.


This code asked for a celsius input and gave a calculated fahrenheit output to one decimal place. This code was similar to the float_calc.c code because it defined a variable (F) and asked for an input, then printed an output using a coded algorithm. At the end of the printf line I wanted to make sure the code multiplied by 9 and divided by 5 before adding 32 so I wrote F*(9/5)+32, which did not work. I then removed the parenetheses and it worked. Also, I forgot each line requires a semicolon at the end. Aside from this I had no problems. I remembered to save each change before making and remaking the code before running the code.